哪種運動對大腦最好?要聰明就要「腳勤」

運動筆記 康健雜誌 發表於2017/11/22

 

(圖片來源:陳昱任)

 

運動對身體好,大家都知道。而從一些老鼠實驗發現,跑步對大腦也很好:可以讓老鼠腦內海馬迴新增的神經元數量,比都不動的老鼠增加 2~3 倍之多。研究推測,跑步之所以能誘發海馬迴的神經元增生,是因為可以增加腦衍生神經滋養因子(Brain-derived neurotropic factors,簡稱 BDNFs)與第一型類胰島素生長因子(Insulin-like growth factor 1,簡稱 IGF-1),進而提高神經前驅細胞的存活率。

但最近有個有趣的研究,比較不同類型運動對大腦健康的幫助,畢竟,我們人類跟老鼠不同,平常會做、喜歡做的運動種類繁多。芬蘭的研究人員便好奇,像平常大家訓練肌肉的重量訓練,或是近來流行的高強度間歇性運動,是否跟慢跑一樣,也會對大腦有益?

研究人員將大鼠分成四組,包括慢跑、重量訓練、高強度間歇訓練,與不運動的大鼠。每一組裡,都大約有快 30 隻大鼠。

研究人員在不運動的大鼠籠子裡提供一些木頭玩具。「重量訓練組」的大鼠,則在大鼠尾巴基部,固定住小鉛塊。然後,讓這些綁有小鉛塊的大鼠爬樓梯。

至於「高強度間歇訓練組」的大鼠,則是在訓練前先測驗出每隻大鼠在跑步機上的最快速度,然後訓練的時候,讓這組老鼠在角度設定為 10 度的跑步機上,先用最快速度的一半跑 5 分鐘,然後用最大速度的九成跑 3 分鐘,然後再用最快速度的一半跑 2 分鐘,每次訓練都會重複這週期 3 次。「重量訓練組」與「高強度間歇訓練組」兩組的大鼠,每個禮拜會按照設計的訓練課程運動三次。

「慢跑組」的老鼠籠子裡,則裝有滾輪,讓大鼠可以隨心所欲地在滾輪上跑步,而且每隻大鼠的跑步距離都有電腦軟體能夠將之偵測與統計。

7 周之後,研究人員觀察各組老鼠的海馬迴神經新生狀態,發現竟有很大差異:

  • 「慢跑組」:比起不運動大鼠,新生的海馬迴神經元要多出好幾倍,而且自主跑步距離愈長的大鼠,海馬迴新生神經元就愈多。
  • 「高強度間歇訓練組」:比起不運動的大鼠,也有較多新生神經元;但比起慢跑組仍稍差。
  • 「重量訓練組」:7 周之後,這組老鼠的肌肉比較發達,但弔詭的是,新生的神經元跟不運動的大鼠比起來,並沒有什麼差別。

雖然這只是個動物實驗,但不妨在一周計劃中,穿插一些不同類型的運動,以達到不同的訓練。

 

》一週運動計劃

根據美國運動醫學會最新的運動指導,健康成人的運動應達中等強度,且要包含伸展、有氧運動和肌力訓練,不能互相取代。

有氧運動

  • 每週 3~5 天,加起來至少要 150 分鐘。
  • 慢跑、快走、跳繩,或結合跑步跟健走的間歇跑走。

間歇跑走

  • 先慢跑 30 秒~1 分鐘,再慢走 30 秒~1 分鐘,重複「快、慢、快、慢」的模式,若身體狀況許可,可改採快跑+快走。

肌力訓練

  • 每週至少 2 天。
  • 深蹲、伏地挺身等,或棒式、橋式這類訓練核心的動作。
  • 每次做 2~3 個動作共約半小時,一組動作 10~15 下或維持 30~60 秒,進行 1~3 組。

提醒│每次運動前後,都必須做伸展:如坐姿前彎、雙手向上伸展 10~15 分鐘,感到伸展部位緊繃即可,避免肌肉痠痛及運動傷害,也幫助雕塑肌肉線條。

注意│肌力訓練不能每天操作,訓練完隔天應休息,讓肌肉有足夠的時間生長與修復。

 

來源:康健雜誌
作者:黃惠姍

 

【延伸閱讀】

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康健樂活節│強肌力教主彭淑美,帶你體驗肌力運動操
加入康健LINE好友,陪你一起愛健康

 

※更多精彩報導,詳見《康健雜誌網站》。


※本文由康健雜誌授權報導,未經同意禁止轉載。

*健康知識 都在運動筆記*


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